Truyện tranh việt: truyện tranh việt nam giành giải thưởng tầm cỡ châu lục

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FIGURE 2. A cover of Tuoi hoa by Vo Hung KietVietnamese Comics

In the early days of Vietnamese comics, they were common in newspapers and published in the khung of albums. Vietnamese comics had various themes & were used for entertainment, education và propaganda. From the late 1960s until 1975, comics flourished in Saigon. 2 These led khổng lồ an increase in the number of comic artists. The most famous illustrator and comic artist at the time was Vo Hung Kiet 3 and he was also an illustrator for stamps. His comics were much loved by children (Figure 2 & 3). During 1970s, besides Vietnamese comics, there were Chinese Lianhuanhua (a palm-kích thước picture book of sequential drawings), Bande Dessinée (Franco-Belgian comics), and American comics. However, these comics were only poorly printed pirated copies that were translated into lớn Vietnamese.

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FIGURE 3. A comic by Vo Hung Kiet Translation of Figure 3. (Based on ordinal numbers in picture) 1— Kim Dong – The little nhân vật of our country Plot: Thy Ngoc Picture: Hung Kiet 2— In Cao Bang province, there is a boy named Dam Van Duc who is good at fighting against tanks. 3— He is 14 years old. When he sees the enemy run away, he jumps onto the tank. 4— While using his knife to pry open the hatch of the tank, the enemy made the tank move sầu and he fell down 5— He was hurt but after he fell down, he saw a wounded soldier. 6— The wounded soldier pointed to lớn his gun and told hlặng khổng lồ lay down on the grass.

Vietnamese comics have changed much since 1987 as they steadily developed though the years and gradually became similar lớn American comics with a growing number of comic artists và comic genres. Meanwhile, in response to lớn the needs of children, the government attached special importance in encouraging the creation of comics. The most famous artist was Hung Lan whose comics were popularly read (Vietnamese fairy talesToet and XeCo Tien Xanh, etc.). The content of these publications was broadly educational và offered lessons in moral philosophy for the reader. 

A New Form of Vietnamese Comics

Despite the popularity of Japanese Manga và also comics from Korea & Trung Quốc fighting for a place in the Vietnamese market, (accessed February 10, 2014)." id="return-note-7433-4" href="#note-7433-4">4 the rise of comics in a Vietnamese style was slow to gain pace given lingering prejudices, the feeling that comics were for children. Yet gradually, Vietnamese artists started to produce comics. In 2002, the Phan Thi Company published the comic series titled Than dong Dat Viet (Vietnamese Child Prodigies) và this was a turning point in Vietnamese comics (Figure 4 and 5). Than dong Dat Viet is about the adventures of Le Ty (Prodigy Ty) & his friends who fight against things perceived as bad. The work is based on Vietnamese customs và national heroes. Along with the drama, the comic also features historical facts và reintroduces Vietnamese national heroes somewhat vividly with exaggerated facial expressions và interesting dialogue. It attracted many young readers & became a long-selling comic with more than 1đôi mươi volumes produced. The comic might be considered similar khổng lồ Manga in panel layout & onomatopoeia (the formation of a word from a sound associated with what is named, & the style in which characters are drawn.

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FIGURE 4. Than dong Dat Viet by Le Linh, 2008, Vol. 100, pp. 62-63 Translation of Figure 4. (From left to right) 1— Ha ha ha… No problem! 2— Uhm, what exactly does madam want? 3— SO STINKY! Keep away from me!!! 4— Gentlemen, please give sầu me… 5— …a little money! 6— I HAVE NO MONEY! 7— Okay! We will draw for you. 8— But you will have sầu khổng lồ pay us the money first. 9— MONEY? No problem! 10— Aaah… 11— Get out of here quickly! 12— You are so selfish! 13— What??
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FIGURE 5. Than dong Dat Viet by Le Linch, 2008, Vol. 100, p. 66 Translation of Figure 5. (From left to right) 1— Hm! I got you! 2— Ahh!! 3: You’re coming with me lớn see the judge! 4— Are you guys okay? 5— Eldest sister, it hurts so much! 6— That’s nothing, why is he crying so much? 7— He is really a crybaby! 8— What?

Since 2011, the number of comics penned by Vietnamese artists have sầu been increasing dramatically. Amongst them, Dat Rong (Dragon Land) in a Manga style by Dimensional Art Group 5 was honored with a Bronze Award at the 6th International Manga Award. 6 Its plot is inspired by the Vietnamese legend of Son Tinh – Thuy Tinch. 7 Aside from this, “Danh Tac Viet Nam (Masterpiece Comics)” published Chi Pheo, Giong lớn (The Rainstorm), & Tat den (Lights Out!), comics adapted from famous masterpieces of Vietnamese literature by BRO, và additionally, the Three-2D Artist Group, 8 also found attention on the comic market. In recent years, Nguyen Thanh Phong has become a well-known independent comic artist in his own right.

Since 2004, Phong’s comics have been serialized in various magazines. “Long than tuong (The Legkết thúc of Long Than Tuong)” serialized in Tre Publishing House’s Truyen toắt con tre (The Young Comics) magazine, “Nhi and Tun” was serialized in Phan Thi Company’s Than dong Dat Viet Fanclub magazine. Phong became much more widely known & popular in Vietnam for his picture book titled Sat thu dau mung mu (The Killer With a Head Full of Festering Sores) (Figure 6).

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FIGURE 6: The cover of Sat thu dau mung mu by Tkhô cứng Phong, 2011

Published in August 2011 by a joint venture between the Nha Nam Company and the Fine Arts Publishing House, this picture book had an initial run of 5,000 copies. (accessed February 10, 2014)." id="return-note-7433-9" href="#note-7433-9">9 It included around 1trăng tròn separate drawings, each accompanied by a short caption borrowed from common informal Vietnamese idioms. For example, the traditional Vietnamese saying “when a horse is sichồng, the whole stable refuses grass”, which means “love people like loving oneself”, was revised to lớn “when a horse is siông chồng, the whole stable can eat more grass” which implies a degree of selfishness and uncaring for others (Figure 7). Additionally, there is also a series of drawings in this book illustrating a phối of humorous rhyming similes drawing on contemporary teen slang which compares different emotions lớn various animals yet without implying anything tangible. For example “chan nhu con gian” (as bored as a cockroach), “buc nhu bé muc” (“as frustrated as a squid”), “ngoc nhu con oc” (“as stupid as a snail”).

According khổng lồ supporters, this picture book is interesting as it includes re-created Vietnamese proverbs and new slang that cannot be found in Vietnamese dictionaries và this is displayed alongside funny or comical pictures (accessed February 10, 2014)." id="return-note-7433-10" href="#note-7433-10">10. Critics point out that the re-created idioms might be a bad influence, especially in the way young people use the Vietnamese language & in their thoughts. 11 Since so much contrary criticism has arisen in regards to this book, the Director of the Vietnamese Publishing Department challenged the Fine Arts Publishing House khổng lồ explain their decision in publishing it. In turn, the Publishing House requested the Nha Nam Company not only lớn stop the publication of the book, but also to withdraw all printed versions from the market citing that sections of the contract signed with the Fine Arts Publishing House had been ignored. (accessed February 10, 2014)." id="return-note-7433-12" href="#note-7433-12">12 In particular, the Publishing House had allowed the Company to lớn publish the book with the title “Re-created Idioms”, but instead published it with the title “Sat thu dau mung mu”.

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FIGURE 7: Sat thu dau mung mu by Thanh hao Phong, 2011, p. 68 Translation of Figure 7. 1— When a horse is siông chồng, the rest of the stable can eat more grass. 2— Hooray! 3— Who cares?
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Figure 8: The cover of Phe nhu bé te te by Tkhô giòn Phong, 2013

In Vietphái nam, If a book causes controversy, the publication will be withdrawn và it will be ignored by the mass truyền thông. However, Sat thu dau mung mu has become an uncomtháng phenomenon. After publication was halted, a talk show called “The language of Youths in the Internet age” examined the case of Nguyen Tkhô hanh Phong’s Sat thu dau mung mu at an sự kiện in March 2012 which took place at L’Espace (the French Culture Center in Hanoi). This talk show looked at the pros & cons of this book. Although some young Vietnamese were aao ước the publication’s critics, a vocal segment of young supporters argued in its favor và found that some adults agreed with them, especially academics such as, Professor Van Nhu Cuong 13 who remarked that new ways of playing around with Vietnamese words và re-creating idoms were innovative since the official Vietnamese language could not reflect such expressions well enough, thus, it created new value from the old. (accessed February 10, 2014)" id="return-note-7433-14" href="#note-7433-14">14 Furthermore, Professor Pham mê Van Tinc 15 commented that this picture book had helped enrich the Vietnamese language và made the point that the tendency for renewing language needs khổng lồ be accepted. 16 These statements helped to promote a revaluation the book. Subsequently, the Nha Nam Company changed the title of the book to “Phe nhu nhỏ te te (Pangolin in a Spin)” when it was republished (Figure 8).

Several days after the book was rereleased, illegal scans of the work could be found on the Internet. Frustrated by this unfortunate turn of events, Phong wrote a note titled “To the Thief” on his personal blog which was addressed to those who had copied the work. (accessed February 10, 2014)." id="return-note-7433-17" href="#note-7433-17">17 The existence of illegal scans such as this has brought about a decrease in the purchase of printed comics. Given this, Vietnamese comic artists will struggle lớn survive sầu or make money from comic creation as the copying hampers the further development of industry as a whole. A new title on the shelf would need to lớn compete with scanned copies of old titles online, this could be why the new Phe nhu con te te is not selling as well as the old one.

Phong và his frikết thúc, Kkhô nóng Duong, founded the Phong Duong Comic Artists Group, in which Phong is responsible for drawings & Duongtakes for the plots. Phong’s profile saw a boost after his work, Orange (written by Kkhô nóng Duong), was published in 2011 by the Phan Thi Company. Orange has become his first comic series that was published as a comic book.

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The plot is about Lam, Secretary of class 11A3 in Crow High School, who is looking for a basketball genius with an orange basketball armbvà. Like Than dong Dat Viet, this comic also could not escape the influence of Manga. It shares similarities with Slam Dunk, a similarity that Phong has admitted. (accessed February 10, 2014)." id="return-note-7433-18" href="#note-7433-18">18 The panel layout and use of onomatopoeia were directly influenced by Manga (Figures 10, 11 and 12). Despite being influenced by Manga, Phong’s drawings of characters are the same as American comics. Aside from drawing more realistically, the plot takes inspiration from the daily lives of Vietnamese youths. The comic reconstructs not only streets and buildings, but cultural images such as markets or ancestor altars (Figures 13 and 14). The narrative sầu of the story is based on Vietnamese culture & the realistic drawing style has made Orange a quality & distinguished phenomenon. Phong Duong has been able khổng lồ establish a characteristic style for Vietnamese comics, and, especially given his toàn thân of work, is considered to lớn be one of Vietnam’s most promising young comic artists.

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FIGURE 10: Orange by Phong Duong, 2011, Vol.1, p.109 Translation of Figure 10. (From left to lớn right) 1— Trang! I forgot my Linkin Park World Tour CD in your bag, please bring it with you tomorrow when you go to school! 2— What? Linkin Park? In Trang’s bag??? 3— That’s it! 4— Good dog, don’t bite me, please! 5— How dare you khổng lồ gọi me a dog??? 6— Grrr! Ahhh!
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Figure 11. Orange by Phong Duong, 2011, Vol.1, p.30 và FIGURE 12: Orange by Phong Duong, 2011, Vol.1, p. 34
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FIGURE 13. Vietnamese markets— Orange by Phong Duong, 2011, Vol.1, pp. 88-89 & FIGURE 14. Vietnamese ancestor altar — Orange by Phong Duong, 2011, Vol.1, p. 119

In November of 2013, Phong released his newest short comic titled “Hang xom (The Neighbor)”intending for the work to join the exhibition “Pieces of life”, with portraits, self-portraits, and cartoon works featuring the daily lives of people in Hanoi which was held at L’Espace. However, the exhibition of this comic was not allowed as its content was thought khổng lồ be unsuitable khổng lồ represent Vietnamese culture because of its sex scenes (Figure 15). (accessed February 10, 2014)." id="return-note-7433-19" href="#note-7433-19">19 The story of “The Neighbor” ." id="return-note-7433-20" href="#note-7433-20">20 is about the quarrels between a young married couple & an old widow who lives in a the neighborhood. The reason that the widow has quarrelled with the couple is because of the water that drips from the couple’s roof onto lớn her house.

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FIGURE 15: “Hang xom” by Tkhô nóng Phong, 2013, p.14 Translation of Figure 16. (From left khổng lồ right) 1— (Sound effects of the bed, “Squeak, Creak!”) Ah! Uh! 2— Ah! Uh! 3— (Squeak!) This bed is just so freaking loud! 4— Hey, what if the neighbors can hear us? 5— Just… let them be jealous. Uh! 6— Ah! Don’t worry! The old widow downstairs is hard of hearing… Aha! When we moved in here, we made a lot of noise but she didn’t complain at all. 7— Well that aside, you still shouldn’t fix anything at night. I can’t st& the noise. 8— Stop talking or this won’t feel good anymore. Let’s go! 9— Ah! Hey, don’t pull on the curtain! You’ll tear it.

Noting the resurgence of comics, the Vietnamese Government has used them to propagate government policies. In September 2013, the Phan Thi Company released a series of Than dong Dat Viet in which the stories focused on Vietnam’s declared authority khổng lồ protect sea borders and islands against claims from the government of Đài Loan Trung Quốc. (accessed February 10, 2014)." id="return-note-7433-21" href="#note-7433-21">21 Hence, there has been a real contrast in the Vietnamese authority’s attitude toward comics. In this dubious situation, Vietnamese comics are not afforded the leeway to lớn stabilize và find their own equilibrium in contemporary Vietnamese culture.

Nguyen Hong PhucNguyen Hong Phuc is a master’s student of Graduate School of Manga Studies, Kyoto lớn Seika University.

Kyolớn Đánh Giá of Southeast Asia. Issue 16 (September 2014) Comics in Southeast Asia: Social và Political Interpretations

Bibliography 

Berndt, Jaqueline edited. Comics Worlds and the World of ComicsTowards Scholarship on a Global Scale (Global Manga Studies, vol.1), Kyoto Seika University International Manga Retìm kiếm Center, 2010.Do, Huu Chi “Comic art in Vietnam: A Brief History,” International Journal of Comic Art 13.1 (Spring 2011): 62-86.Do, Mingươi H. The Search for Modernity: Literature và Vietnamese Nationalism, 1900-1939 (M.A. Thesis), University of Hawaii, 2002.Furuta, Motoo. Betonamu no Sekaishi – Chuuka Seikai kara Tounan Ajia Sekai e (Vietphái mạnh in the world history Toward to lớn the world of Southeast Asia from the world of China), (Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, 1995).Groensteen,Thierry. The System of Comics, (University Press of Mississippi, 2009).Ichiki, Jun – Ogi, Fusami – Motohama, Hidehiko jointly edited. Manga wa ekkyou suru! (Beyond Borders: the Transnational Power of Manga), (Sekaishisousha, 2010).Iwashita, Houyuu. “Manga no Zuzou ni okeru “Kigosei” nitsuite”, Manga Kenkyuu Vol.12 (Manga Studies Vol.12), (Nihon Manga Gakkai, 2007), 54-61.Marr, David G. Vietnamese Tradition on Trial, 1920-1945, (University of California Press, 1984).McHale, Shawn Frederick. Print và Power: Confucianism, Communism, và Buddhism in the Making of Modern Vietnam (Southeast Asia: Politics, Meaning, & Memory), (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2004).Natsume, Fusanosuke. Manga wa naze omoshiroi no ka – Sono hyouren lớn bunpou (Why are manga interesting? – Its expression and grammar), Tokyo: Nihon Housou Shuppan Kyoukai, 1997.Ono, Kouse. “Zoushoku suru Manga – MANGA wa Sekai ni hirogatteiru” (Growing Manga – MANGA is spreading throughout the world), Manga wa ekkyou suru! (Beyond Borders: the Transnational Power nguồn of Manga), (Sekaishisousha, 2010), pp. 40-64.Sekigubỏ ra, Sueo – Tran, Van Tho jointly edited. Gendẻo Betonamu Keizai – Sasshin (Doi Moi) to Keizai Kensetsu (The contemporary Vietnamese economy – Renovation (Doi Moi) and Economic construction), (Keisoshobo, 1992).Tran, Huy Lieu. Mot bau tam su (A gourdful of confidences), (Cuong Hoc Thu Xa Press, 1927).Yoshikawa, Norihiro. “Chugoku ni okeru Kaizokuban Nihon Manga nitsuite no Kousatsu” (The consideration of pirated Japanese manga in China), Manga Kenkyuu Vol.2 (Manga Studies Vol.2), (Nihon Manga Gakkai, 2002), pp. 131-136.

Websites (Last accessed: February 10, 2014)

The menu of Phong’s works:

“Truyen thuyet Long Than Tuong (The Legend of Long Than Tuong) ”, Truyen tnhóc con tre, (Tre Publishing House, 2004).“Nhi va Tun (Nhi and Tun)”, Than Dong Dat Viet Fanclub, (Phan Thi Company, 2004).“Cau be va may bay giay (The Boy và the Paper Plane)”, Liquid City Volume 1, (Image Comics, 2008), p. 7.Bon anh tai – Sang tau doi no (Four Incredible Guys – A Journey to China lớn Recover a Debt), (Nha Nam Company, 2009).“Be lon, lon bo (Pig when small – Cow when big)”, 2010, p. 12.“Bicof Story,” in Liew, Sonny, and Lim Cheng Tju, eds, Liquid City 2, (Image Comics, 2010), p.7.Orange, Phan Thi Company, 2011.“Nguoi hoa ho (Man-Turned-Tiger)”, 2011, p.9.

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Sat thu dau mung mu (The killer with a head full of suppurating sores), (Nha Nam Company & the Fine Arts Publishing House), 2013.“Hang xom (The neighbor)”, 2013, p.21.


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