An nam đại quốc họa đồ

Vietnam-taberd-1838"The Bishop"s Map", being a combination of western and Vietnamese cartography & the best map of Vietnam giới in the pre-Colonial era.

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安南帝國畫圖 / An Nam Đại Quốc họa đồ seu Tabula Geographica Imperii Anamitici ab Auctore Dictionarii Latino-Anamitici disposita 1838. 1838 (dated)33.25 x 19.5 in (84.455 x 49.53 cm)1 : 2100000
Known as the "Bishop"s Map", this is an exceptional & important 1838 map of Vietphái mạnh by Jean-Louis Taberd, a French missionary. Printed in Calcutta, India, the bản đồ is based on Taberd"s roughly 10 years of missionary work in Cochinchimãng cầu, modern-day southern Vietphái nam, under the Nguyễn Emperors, và is thus the first major advancement on Vietnamese cartography since the 1653 Alexander de Rhodes bản đồ of northern Vietphái mạnh. The map illustrates the Nguyễn Empire at the height of its power & influence, near half a century before the French interventions and subsequent colonization known as "French Indochina".A Closer LookThe map illustrates the expansive claims of the Annamese Empire at its height, reaching west to just beyond Tonle Sap Lake, where it meets the Siamese border, thus embracing most of modern-day Cambodia và Laos. Cartographically it is a synthesis of Vietnamese administrative cartography & western techniques. To make the bản đồ, Taberd consulted with Vietnamese "chain và compass engineers" who mapped the Mekong in great detail - bringing its full extent lớn western maps for the first time. Similar efforts allowed hyên to lớn place with reasonable accuracy Vietnamese forts & settlements throughout. While he lamented the Vietnamese refusal lớn embrace western cartographic norms, such as longitude & latitude, he argued that his quality synthesis of styles produced "the best & most detailed bản đồ that had yet appeared."The Great WallMany early maps of Vietnam include a long "Great Wall of China" style wall in Quảng Ngãi province separating north and south Vietphái nam, or in this case the Trịnh và Nguyễn, respectively. The 1819 wall was built by Lê Văn uống Duyệt (1763 phần tư -1832), a general in service lớn Gia Long, ostensibly to protect villages from upl& minority raids. Although it appeared on several early maps, the wall quickly became overgrown và was forgotten until rediscovered in 2005 by archeologists of the of École Française d"Extrême-Orient. New research suggests that the construction of the wall was not as one-sided as it may seem. Although surviving written references to lớn the wall are exclusively in the Việt tradition, it is likely khổng lồ have sầu been a joint effort by both the Việt and Hrê peoples khổng lồ create a secure defined border lớn mutual benefit.Historical ContextThe maps illustrates Vietnam giới at the over of Emperor Gia Long"s (1762 - 1820) reign & in the early days of Minh Mạng"s (1791 - 1841) reign. French missionaries were well treated by Gia Long, but Minch Mạng despised and feared them. By 1833, he had either banished or executed most active missionaries, including Taberd, who fled khổng lồ Calcutta. Where Gia Long was a great conqueror, Minch Mạng was a great consolidator, bringing his predecessors conquests under central administrative control on the Chinese tributary Mã Sản Phẩm. By the kết thúc of Gia Long"s reign, there remained only two great powers in Southeast Asia: Siam và Vietnam giới. The smaller countries between, the declining Khmer Empire of Cambodia và the Kingdom of Laos, were fully absorbed by the larger empires. In conquered Cambodia, we see old Khmer names replaced by Vietnamese prefectures và a new capital has been established at Nam Van Thành (Phnom Penh).Paracel IslandsIn addition to its historical importance, this bản đồ has modern-day significance for its illustration of the Paracel Islands (西沙群岛, Quần đảo Hoàng Sa ) as unambiguously Vietnamese. The Emperor Gia Long (1762 - 1820) conquered and claimed the islands in 1816. Although little more than coral atolls, the islands are strategically located to control the South Trung Quốc Sea. Today, sovereignty over the Paracels is a hotly disputed matter of international contention. During the Battle of the Paracel Islands (January 1974), the PRC expelled the Vietnamese and took control. Since that time, Trung Quốc, Vietphái mạnh, & Taiwan have all claimed de jure sovereignty. In năm 2016, an international arbitrational tribunal led by the United Nations ruled in favor of Vietnam"s claims. Nonetheless, Trung Quốc declared the tribunal illegal & remains the occupying force. At the time this bản đồ was drawn, Taberd didn"t think much of the Paracels, The Pracel or Paracels, is a labyrinth of small islands, rocks and sand-banks, which appears lớn extend up to the 11th degree of north latitude, in the 107th parallel of longitude from Paris. . . Although this kind of archipelago presents nothing but rocks & great depths which promises more inconveniences than advantages, the king Gia Long thought he had increased his dominions by this sorry addition. In 1816, he went with solemnity to plant his flag & take formal possession of these rocks, which it is not likely anybody toàn thân will dispute with hlặng.Publication History & CensusThis bản đồ was published for inclusion in Jean-Louis Taberd"s Latin-Vietnamese dictionary, Dictionarium Anamitico-Latinum. The book và maps were printed in Calcutta, India, where Tabard lived at the time. The bản đồ was printed by the Oriental Lithographic Press, Calcutta. The Dictionarium is represented at several institutions but is extremely scarce to lớn the market.